When it comes to buying the wire and cable, many different price effective factors shall be considered that you may never even heard about them, especially optic fibre or optical fiber. Copper wire and fiber optics are the two basic types of cable families that are used to transport signals in data networks such as the internet. Copper wire is the more common type. Ethernet cables are an example of low-voltage cabling that is used for signal transmission; coaxial cable is another prominent type of cable. Copper is by a significant margin the oldest type of cable that is still in use. Low-voltage bursts of electricity travel the length of a copper line, where they are transformed into binary information, which is then received and analyzed by a computer located at the other end of the wire. he information is transmitted by a fiber optic wire in the form of light pulses, which are then processed by the computer as they travel down a glass filament. Single mode and multi-mode fiber optic cables are the two basic subcategories that can be found within the larger family of fiber optic cables. When compared to the thickness of the filament in multi-mode fiber optic cable, which is 50 m, the filament in single-mode fiber optic cable is an exceedingly minute 9 m. When compared to multi-mode fiber, which is capable of transmitting several rays of light, single-mode fiber can only carry a single signal or ray of light at a time.
Real-world uses can be found for every variety of fiber optic cable. The evaluation of your use case, infrastructure, and financial constraints are typically required to make the best choice. Fiber optic networks are uncommon on the local level despite the fact that fiber optic cables make up the backbone that the majority of the world’s data centers (and consequently the internet) depend on. This, however, is rapidly changing as a result of the increasing number of communities that are installing municipal fiber networks (another nod to the similarities between the internet and traditional utility services). Businesses are also beginning to recognize the advantages of transitioning to fiber networks, and in some cases are even willing to pay for the installation of fiber optics along public roadways in order to gain access to these networks. The refractive index, the materials that are utilized, and the mode that light travels through the optical fiber cable all have a role in the classification of the optical fiber cable. There are two different kinds of bases that make up the refractive index OFC:
- Step Index Fibers are characterized by having a core that is encased by a cladding that possesses a single uniform index of refraction.
- Optical fibers with a graded index have a refractive index that lowers as the radial distance from the fiber axis rises.
OFC can be divided into two categories according to the materials used:
- Plastic Optical Fibers: The poly(methyl methacrylate) that is employed as a core material for the transmission of light in these optical fibers is made of plastic.
- Fibers of Glass: This particular fiber cable is made up of incredibly minute glass fibers.
OFC can be broken down into the following categories according to the mode in which light travels:
- Single-Mode Fibers are essential for the transmission of signals across extended distances.
- Signals can be sent across relatively small distances using multimode fibers, which are used for this purpose.
Price factors that you never considered
You may have heard about some of the factors that shall be considered for price calculation. In the following content, we have listed these factors regarding the optical fiber. The markets for fiber optic patch cords are highly complicated at the moment. The cost of a typical SC single-core patch cord of 1 meter might range anywhere from $0.30 to more than $2. Why is there such a significant gap in price between different brands of fiber optic patch cords? The price of fiber optic patch cables is determined by a number of different parameters, all of which are listed below.
- Variations in the Quality of the Raw Materials
The connections at both ends of a fiber optic patch cord are joined to the optical cable in the middle of the patch cord. Fiber, an inner sheath, aramid yarn, and an outer sheath make up the optical cable from the inside out. The outer sheath protects the fiber from the elements. (1) The use of Optical Fiber Optical fiber is the primary raw material that is used in the construction of fiber optic cables. The majority of manufacturers employ grade A fiber cores in their products.
Grade C or D fiber cores are frequently used in the production of cables that are both low-cost and of poor quality. Sometimes, OM3-300 fiber is used to fool people into thinking it is OM4 fiber when the situation calls for it. Most smaller facilities do not have the testing equipment required to make an accurate assessment of the quality of optical fiber. Because such optical fibers cannot be seen by the naked eye, problems are frequently encountered during construction. These problems include excessive loss, which results in a short transmission distance, and uneven core diameter, which makes it difficult to butt with pigtails or results in a large loss after butting. Both of these problems are caused by uneven core diameter. (2) Aramid Yarn Aramid is an innovative form of high-tech synthetic fiber that possesses very high tensile strength, resilience to high temperatures, as well as resistance to acids and alkalis. Its strength is five to six times that of steel wire, and it will not melt or break down even when heated to a temperature of 560 degrees Celsius. Aramid also possesses anti-aging and insulating qualities that are quite beneficial. It is generally agreed upon that the development of aramid as a material represents a highly significant milestone in the history of the material industry. Generally speaking, aramid is used as the primary fabric for the production of bulletproof vests and helmets used by the military today. The use of aramid in indoor fiber optic cables serves the goal of providing protection against mechanical tension for the tight buffer fiber.
Kevlar, imported aramid yarn, domestic aramid yarn, and polyester yarn are the four broad categories into which aramid yarn can be roughly categorized based on the difference in their materials. The para-aramid material that was developed by DuPont in the United States and marketed under the brand name Kevlar carries a hefty price tag. Teijin, located in Japan, and Kolon, located in South Korea, are two of the most important manufacturers of aramid yarn located outside of the United States. Their costs are more affordable compared to those of DuPont. The price of Chinese-made aramid yarn is relatively inexpensive despite the fact that its performance is beginning to level off. Yantai Tayho, Suzhou Zhaoda, Sinopec Yizheng, and Bluestar Chengrand are the primary manufacturers of aramid yarn in China. Indoor fiber optic cables typically include aramid yarn as one of their more expensive components. As a result of the high price of aramid yarn, low-quality indoor cables may be produced by using either a reduced number of strands of aramid yarn or polyester yarn, which is visually comparable to aramid yarn but has a different chemical composition. The cost of imported aramid yarn is ten times higher than that of polyester yarn, which costs less than one-tenth as much. However, polyester yarn can barely withstand any tension, which makes it easy for the optical fiber to break or become damaged during the laying process. In addition, polyester yarn is not resistant to high temperatures and does not have a fire-retardant quality. Burning the yarn in a fire is a quick and easy way to tell the difference between polyester and aramid yarn, which are both distinguished by their respective properties. The movies that follow are burning tests of yarn made of aramid and polyester respectively.
(3) The covering Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), flame-retardant PVC, low smoke zero halogen (LSZH), and flame-retardant LSZH are the most common types of materials used for the outer sheath of indoor fiber optic cables. When subjected to high levels of heat, the LSZH cable jacket is made of thermoplastic or thermoset polymers, both of which produce little smoke and none of the hazardous gas halogen. The cost of LSZH is more than twice as much as that of PVC. The price of flame-retardant sheath can vary greatly depending on the flame-retardant grade of the sheath. The high-quality outer sheath should have a smooth, bright, and elastic appearance, and it should be simple to peel off. Additionally, it should be stretchy. A poor quality cable jacket has a smooth surface and is simple to adhere aramid yarn and tight buffer fiber on. Additionally, the surface is not very rough. (4) Ferrule The ferrule is the component that has the most significant impact on the overall performance of the fiber optic connector. The exact center connection of the two optical fibers is directly impacted by the quality of the ferrule that holds them together. Ceramic, metal, or plastic can all be used to make ferrules. Ferrule made of ceramic is very common. There are two circumstances in which the ceramic ferrule may result in a decrease in the quality of the connectors.
1In the production process, ferrules with a concentricity of 1.5 um rather than 1.0 um are being used. The loss value can be made to appear to enter qualified range by rotating the connector in order to alter the position of the cores while the test is being conducted. 2Using ferrules that have been recycled. Because second-hand ferrules have previously been ground into connectors during the manufacturing process, the exposed length of the ferrules may be excessively short, which will result in a significant increase in the amount of access loss when the ferrules are utilized once more.
- Different Technical Standards
(1) Fiber End FaceThe fiber end face is segmented into three distinct sections, which are labeled ABC in the following figure: On the high-quality end face, the fiber core region A and the fiber cladding area B must be free of any stains, scratches, or other defects of any kind. In the event that this does not occur, they will create impediments for the transmission of optical signals and alter the values of insertion loss and return loss. (2) Insertion Loss and Return Loss IndicatorInsertion loss and return loss are the two primary characteristics that are utilized in the process of evaluating the optical performance of fiber optic connectors. Insertion loss, also known as IL, is the loss of optical power that is a result of the connection. It is used to describe the optical loss that occurs between two fixed points in the fiber.
. This loss is typically caused by the horizontal deviation that exists between two fibers, the vertical gap that exists between two connectors, or the quality of the end face. Decibels are the units used to express this quantity (dB). In addition, the value of IL must be less than or equal to 0.3 dB, as this is the standard requirement. Return Loss, often known as RL, is a metric of signal reflection performance that characterizes the power loss that occurs during the return or reflection of an optical signal. In addition, the unit can be stated using decibels (dB). In general, the RL value of an APC connector is approximately 60 dB, whereas the RL value of a UPC connector is approximately 50 dB. Each end of the fiber optic connector manufactured by Sun Telecom is subjected to an IL and RL test, in which it is continually measured three times. Each measurement value satisfies the requirements that are listed below, and the change in insertion loss is lower than 0.2 dB. If it is necessary to record the actual value, then the value that has been repeated three times will have its average recorded. (3) Plug StabilityIn order to meet the requirements of the standard IEC 61753-1, the plugging durability of fiber optic connectors must be greater than or equal to 500 times, and the change in insertion loss must be less than or equal to 0.2 dB. When inferior connectors are repeatedly plugged in and unplugged a large number of times, the attenuation of the connection will increase.
Therefore, plugging durability is typically considered to be one of the most important indicators reflecting the stability of fiber optic connectors. This is because plugging durability is directly related to the longevity of the connection.
- Variations in the Capabilities of Manufactures
The processes involved in the manufacturing of fiber optic patch cords can be broken down into three distinct phases: the first phase involves the assembly of cables and connectors, the second phase involves end face polishing, and the third phase involves inspection and testing. The production of fiber optic patch cords of high quality has stringent requirements for a variety of different aspects. There are a lot of different aspects that go into determining the price and quality of patch cords. Some of these aspects include the effectiveness of the production scale, the degree to which the production equipment is automated, the extent to which test instruments are complete and accurate, the level of expertise possessed by operators, the quality control ability, and the lean production site management ability, etc. When selecting a supplier for fiber optic patch cords, the most important factor to examine is not the price but rather the overall cost performance of the provider in addition to the product quality, technical strength, and service quality of the supplier. Sun Telecom is a professional solutions provider for fiber optic technology. In addition to providing affordable fiber optic patch cords, Sun Telecom also provides turnkey solutions that can assist in the construction of an integrated or sectional patch cord production line. These solutions are based on more than three decades of industry experience.